Bloom's Taxonomy

Benjamin Bloom created this taxonomy for categorizing level of abstraction of questions that commonly occur in educational settings. The taxonomy provides a useful structure in which to categorize test questions, since professors will characteristically ask questions within particular levels, and if you can determine the levels of questions that will appear on your exams, you will be able to study using appropriate strategies.

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  1. Knowledge: arrange, define, duplicate, label, list, memorize, name, order, recognize, relate, recall, repeat, reproduce state.
  2. Comprehension: classify, describe, discuss, explain, express, identify, indicate, locate, recognize, report, restate, review, select, translate,
  3. Application: apply, choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, operate, practice, schedule, sketch, solve, use, write.
  4. Analysis: analyze, appraise, calculate, categorize, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, question, test.
  5. Synthesis: arrange, assemble, collect, compose, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, manage, organize, plan, prepare, propose, set up, write.
  6. Evaluation: appraise, argue, assess, attach, choose compare, defend estimate, judge, predict, rate, core, select, support, value, evaluate.



Key Words Questions

Skills Demonstrated

Potential activities and products
Level 1:Knowledge

(REMEMBERING): (Cognitive)

exhibits previously learned material by recalling facts, terms, basic concepts and answers.

who, what, why, when, omit, where, which, choose, find, how, define, label, show, spell, list, match, name, relate, tell, recall, select What is . . . ? How is . . . ?

Where is . . . ? When did _______ happen?

How did ______ happen? How would you explain . . . ?

Why did . . . ? How would you describe . . . ?

When did . . . ? Can you recall . . . ?

How would you show . . . ? Can you select . . . ?

Who were the main . . . ? Can you list three . . . ?

Which one . . . ? Who was . . . ?


  • observation and recall of information
  • knowledge of dates, events, places
  • knowledge of major ideas
  • mastery of subject matter
  • Question Cues:
    list, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name, who, when, where, etc.
Make a list of the main events..
Make a timeline of events.
Make a facts chart.
Write a list of any pieces of information you can remember. 
List all the .... in the story.
Make a chart showing...
Make an acrostic.
Recite a poem.
RESPONDING: (affective)        
Level 2:Comprehension


demonstrating understanding of facts and ideas by organizing, comparing, translating, interpreting, giving descriptions and stating main ideas.

compare, contrast, demonstrate, interpret, explain, extend, illustrate, infer, outline, relate, rephrase, translate, summarize, show, classify How would you classify the type of . . . ?

How would you compare . . . ? contrast . . . ?

Will you state or interpret in your own words . . . ?

How would you rephrase the meaning . . . ?

What facts or ideas show . . . ?

What is the main idea of . . . ?

Which statements support . . . ?

Can you explain what is happening . . . what is meant . . .?

What can you say about . . . ?

Which is the best answer . . . ?

How would you summarize . . . ?




  • understanding information
  • grasp meaning
  • translate knowledge into new context
  • interpret facts, compare, contrast
  • order, group, infer causes
  • predict consequences
  • Question Cues:
    summarize, describe, interpret, contrast, predict, associate, distinguish, estimate, differentiate, discuss, extend
Cut out or draw pictures to show a particular event.
Illustrate what you think the main idea was.
Make a cartoon strip showing the sequence of events.
Write and perform a play based on the story.
Retell the story in your words.
Paint a picture of some aspect you like.
Write a summary report of an event.
Prepare a flow chart to illustrate the sequence of events.
Make a colouring book.
Level 3:Application


solving problems by applying acquired knowledge, facts, techniques and rules in a different way.

apply, build, choose, construct, develop, interview, make use of, organize, experiment with, plan, select, solve, utilize, model, identify How would you classify the type of . . . ?

How would you compare . . . ? contrast . . . ?

Will you state or interpret in your own words . . . ?

How would you rephrase the meaning . . . ?

What facts or ideas show . . . ?

What is the main idea of . . . ?

Which statements support . . . ?

Can you explain what is happening . . . what is meant . . .?

What can you say about . . . ?

Which is the best answer . . . ?

How would you summarize . . . ?



  • use information
  • use methods, concepts, theories in new situations
  • solve problems using required skills or knowledge
  • Questions Cues:
    apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete, illustrate, show, solve, examine, modify, relate, change, classify, experiment, discover
Construct a model to demonstrate how it will work.
Make a diorama to illustrate an important event.
Make a scrapbook about the areas of study.
Make a paper-mache map to include relevant information about an event.
Take a collection of photographs to demonstrate a particular point.
Make up a puzzle game suing the ideas from the study area.
Make a clay model of an item in the material.
Design a market strategy for your product using a known strategy as a model.
Dress a doll in national costume.
Paint a mural using the same materials.
Write a textbook about... for others.
ORGANIZATION BY VALUES: (affective)        
Level 4: Analysis


 examining and breaking information into parts by identifying motives or causes; making inferences and finding evidence to support generalizations.

analyze, categorize, classify, compare, contrast, discover, dissect, divide, examine, inspect, simplify, survey, take part in, test for, distinguish, list, distinction, theme, relationships, function, motive, inference, assumption, conclusion What are the parts or features of . . . ?

How is _______ related to . . . ?

Why do you think . . . ?

What is the theme . . . ?

What motive is there . . . ?

Can you list the parts . . . ?

What inference can you make . . . ?

What conclusions can you draw . . . ?

How would you classify . . . ?

How would you categorize . . . ?

Can you identify the difference parts . . . ?

What evidence can you find . . . ?

What is the relationship between . . . ?

Can you make a distinction between . . . ?

What is the function of . . . ?

What ideas justify . . . ?



  • seeing patterns
  • organization of parts
  • recognition of hidden meanings
  • identification of components
  • Question Cues:
    analyze, separate, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange, divide, compare, select, explain, infer
Design a questionnaire to gather information.
Write a commercial to sell a new product.
Conduct an investigation to produce information to support a view.
Make a flow chart to show the critical stages.
Construct a graph to illustrate selected information.
Make a jigsaw puzzle.
Make a family tree showing relationships.
Put on a play about the study area.
Write a biography of the study person.
Prepare a report about the area of study.
Arrange a party. Make all the arrangements and record the steps needed.
Review a work of art in terms of form, colour and texture.
Level 5: Synthesis

(CREATING): (Cognitive)

compiling information together in a different way by combining elements in a new pattern or proposing alternative solutions.

build, choose, combine, compile, compose, construct, create, design, develop, estimate, formulate, imagine, invent, make up, originate, plan, predict, propose, solve, solution, suppose, discuss, modify, change, original, improve, adapt, minimize, maximize, delete, theorize, elaborate, test, improve, happen, change What changes would you make to solve . . . ?

How would you improve . . . ?

What would happen if . . . ?

Can you elaborate on the reason . . . ?

Can you propose an alternative . . . ?

Can you invent . . . ?

How would you adapt ________ to create a different . . . ?

How could you change (modify) the plot (plan) . . . ?

What could be done to minimize (maximize) . . . ?

What way would you design . . . ?

What could be combined to improve (change) . . . ?

Suppose you could _______ what would you do . . . ?

How would you test . . . ?

Can you formulate a theory for . . . ?

Can you predict the outcome if . . . ?

How would you estimate the results for . . . ?

What facts can you compile . . . ?

Can you construct a model that would change . . . ?

Can you think of an original way for the . . . ? 




  • use old ideas to create new ones
  • generalize from given facts
  • relate knowledge from several areas
  • predict, draw conclusions
  • Question Cues:
    combine, integrate, modify, rearrange, substitute, plan, create, design, invent, what if?, compose, formulate, prepare, generalize, rewrite
Invent a machine to do a specific task.
Design a building to house your study.
Create a new product. Give it a name and plan a marketing campaign.
Write about your feelings in relation to...
Write a TV show, play, puppet show, role play, song or pantomime about...?
Design a record, book, or magazine cover for...?
Make up a new language code and write material suing it.
Sell an idea.
Devise a way to...
Compose a rhythm or put new words to a known melody.
Level 6:Evaluation

( Cognitive)

presenting and defending opinions by making judgments about information, validity of ideas or quality of work based on a set of criteria.

award, choose, conclude, criticize, decide, defend, determine, dispute, evaluate, judge, justify, measure, compare, mark, rate, recommend, rule on, select, agree, interpret, explain, appraise, prioritize, opinion, ,support, importance, criteria, prove, disprove, assess, influence, perceive, value, estimate, influence, deduct Do you agree with the actions . . . ? with the outcomes . . . ?

What is your opinion of . . . ?

How would you prove . . . ? disprove . . . ?

Can you assess the value or importance of . . . ?

Would it be better if . . . ?

Why did they (the character) choose . . . ?

What would you recommend . . . ?

How would you rate the . . . ?

What would you cite to defend the actions . . . ?

How would you evaluate . . . ?

How could you determine . . . ?

What choice would you have made . . . ?

What would you select . . . ?

How would you prioritize . . . ?

What judgment would you make about . . . ?

Based on what you know, how would you explain . . . ?

What information would you use to support the view . . . ?

How would you justify . . . ?

What data was used to make the conclusion . . . ?

Why was it better that . . . ?

How would you prioritize the facts . . . ?

How would you compare the ideas . . . ? people . . . ? 



  • compare and discriminate between ideas
  • assess value of theories, presentations
  • make choices based on reasoned argument
  • verify value of evidence
  • recognize subjectivity
  • Question Cues
    assess, decide, rank, grade, test, measure, recommend, convince, select, judge, explain, discriminate, support, conclude, compare, summarize
Prepare a list of criteria to judge a ... show. Indicate priority and ratings.
Conduct a debate about an issue of special interest.
Make a booklet about 5 rules you see as important. Convince others.
Form a panel to discuss views, eg "Learning at School."
Write a letter to ... advising on changes needed at...
Write a half yearly report.
Prepare a case to present your view about...


* Adapted from: Bloom, B.S. (Ed.) (1956) Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals: Handbook I, cognitive domain. New York ; Toronto: Longmans, Green.

Reference: Quick Flip Questions for Critical Thinking, based on Bloom's Taxonomy and developed by Linda G. Barton




Knowledge: Recall of data.

Examples: Recite a policy. Quote prices from memory to a customer. Knows the safety rules.

Key Words: defines, describes, identifies, knows, labels, lists, matches, names, outlines, recalls, recognizes, reproduces, selects, states.

Comprehension: Understand the meaning, translation, interpolation, and interpretation of instructions and problems. State a problem in one's own words.

Examples: Rewrites the principles of test writing. Explain in one’s own words the steps for performing a complex task. Translates an equation into a computer spreadsheet.

Key words: comprehends, converts, defends, distinguishes, estimates, explains, extends, generalizes, gives examples, infers, interprets, paraphrases, predicts, rewrites, summarizes, translates.

Application: Use a concept in a new situation or unprompted use of an abstraction. Applies what was learned in the classroom into novel situations in the workplace.

Examples: Use a manual to calculate an employee’s vacation time. Apply laws of statistics to evaluate the reliability of a written test.

Key Words: applies, changes, computes, constructs, demonstrates, discovers, manipulates, modifies, operates, predicts, prepares, produces, relates, shows, solves, uses.

Analysis: Separates material or concepts into component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. Distinguishes between facts and inferences. 

Examples: Troubleshoot a piece of equipment by using logical deduction. Recognize logical fallacies in reasoning. Gathers information from a department and selects the required tasks for training.

Keywords: analyzes, breaks down, compares, contrasts, diagrams, deconstructs, differentiates, discriminates, distinguishes, identifies, illustrates, infers, outlines, relates, selects, separates.

Synthesis: Builds a structure or pattern from diverse elements. Put parts together to form a whole, with emphasis on creating a new meaning or structure.

Examples: Write a company operations or process manual. Design a machine to perform a specific task. Integrates training from several sources to solve a problem. Revises and process to improve the outcome.

Keywords: categorizes, combines, compiles, composes, creates, devises, designs, explains, generates, modifies, organizes, plans, rearranges, reconstructs, relates, reorganizes, revises, rewrites, summarizes, tells, writes.

Evaluation: Make judgments about the value of ideas or materials.

Examples: Select the most effective solution. Hire the most qualified candidate. Explain and justify a new budget.

Keywords: appraises, compares, concludes, contrasts, criticizes, critiques, defends, describes, discriminates, evaluates, explains, interprets, justifies, relates, summarizes, supports.


This domain includes the manner in which we deal with things emotionally, such as feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and attitudes. The five major categories listed in order are:


Receiving phenomena: Awareness, willingness to hear, selected attention.

Examples: Listen to others with respect. Listen for and remember the name of newly introduced people.

Keywords: asks, chooses, describes, follows, gives, holds, identifies, locates, names, points to, selects, sits, erects, replies, uses.

Responding to phenomena: Active participation on the part of the learners. Attends and reacts to a particular phenomenon.  Learning outcomes may emphasize compliance in responding, willingness to respond, or satisfaction in responding (motivation). 

Examples:  Participates in class discussions.  Gives a presentation. Questions new ideals, concepts, models, etc. in order to fully understand them. Know the safety rules and practices them.

Keywords: answers, assists, aids, complies, conforms, discusses, greets, helps, labels, performs, practices, presents, reads, recites, reports, selects, tells, writes.

Valuing: The worth or value a person attaches to a particular object, phenomenon, or behavior. This ranges from simple acceptance to the more complex state of commitment. Valuing is based on the internalization of a set of specified values, while clues to these values are expressed in the learner’s overt behavior and are often identifiable. 

Examples:  Demonstrates belief in the democratic process. Is sensitive towards individual and cultural differences (value diversity). Shows the ability to solve problems. Proposes a plan to social improvement and follows through with commitment. Informs management on matters that one feels strongly about.

Keywords: completes, demonstrates, differentiates, explains, follows, forms, initiates, invites, joins, justifies, proposes, reads, reports, selects, shares, studies, works.

Organization: Organizes values into priorities by contrasting different values, resolving conflicts between them, and creating an unique value system.  The emphasis is on comparing, relating, and synthesizing values. 

Examples:  Recognizes the need for balance between freedom and responsible behavior. Accepts responsibility for one’s behavior. Explains the role of systematic planning in solving problems. Accepts professional ethical standards. Creates a life plan in harmony with abilities, interests, and beliefs. Prioritizes time effectively to meet the needs of the organization, family, and self.

Keywords: adheres, alters, arranges, combines, compares, completes, defends, explains, formulates, generalizes, identifies, integrates, modifies, orders, organizes, prepares, relates, synthesizes.

Internalizing values (characterization): Has a value system that controls their behavior. The behavior is pervasive, consistent, predictable, and most importantly, characteristic of the learner. Instructional objectives are concerned with the student's general patterns of adjustment (personal, social, emotional).

Examples:  Shows self-reliance when working independently. Cooperates in group activities (displays teamwork). Uses an objective approach in problem solving.  Displays a professional commitment to ethical  practice on a daily basis. Revises judgments and changes behavior in light of new evidence. Values people for what they are, not how they look.

Keywords: acts, discriminates, displays, influences, listens, modifies, performs, practices, proposes, qualifies, questions, revises, serves, solves, verifies.

Psychomotor 3

The psychomotor domain includes physical movement, coordination, and use of the motor-skill areas. Development of these skills requires practice and is measured in terms of speed, precision, distance, procedures, or techniques in execution. The seven major categories listed in order are:


Perception: The ability to use sensory cues to guide motor activity.  This ranges from sensory stimulation, through cue selection, to translation.

Examples:  Detects non-verbal communication cues. Estimate where a ball will land after it is thrown and then moving to the correct location to catch the ball. Adjusts heat of stove to correct temperature by smell and taste of food. Adjusts the height of the forks on a forklift by comparing where the forks are in relation to the pallet.

Keywords: chooses, describes, detects, differentiates, distinguishes, identifies, isolates, relates, selects.

Set: Readiness to act. It includes mental, physical, and emotional sets. These three sets are dispositions that predetermine a person’s response to different situations (sometimes called mindsets).

Examples:  Knows and acts upon a sequence of steps in a manufacturing process.  Recognize one’s abilities and limitations. Shows desire to learn a new process (motivation). NOTE: This subdivision of Psychomotor is closely related with the "Responding to phenomena" subdivision of the Affective domain.

Keywords: begins, displays, explains, moves, proceeds, reacts, shows, states, volunteers.

Guided response: The early stages in learning a complex skill that includes imitation and trial and error. Adequacy of performance is achieved by practicing.

Examples:  Performs a mathematical equation as demonstrated. Follows instructions to build a model. Responds hand-signals of instructor while learning to operate a forklift.

Keywords: copies, traces, follows, react, reproduce, responds

Mechanism: This is the intermediate stage in learning a complex skill. Learned responses have become habitual and the movements can be performed with some confidence and proficiency. 

Examples:  Use a personal computer. Repair a leaking faucet. Drive a car.

Keywords: assembles, calibrates, constructs, dismantles, displays, fastens, fixes, grinds, heats, manipulates, measures, mends, mixes, organizes, sketches.

Complex Overt Response: The skillful performance of motor acts that involve complex movement patterns. Proficiency is indicated by a quick, accurate, and highly coordinated performance, requiring a minimum of energy. This category includes performing without hesitation, and automatic performance. For example, players are often utter sounds of satisfaction or expletives as soon as they hit a tennis ball or throw a football, because they can tell by the feel of the act what the result will produce.

Examples:  Maneuvers a car into a tight parallel parking spot. Operates a computer quickly and accurately. Displays competence while playing the piano.

Keywords: assembles, builds, calibrates, constructs, dismantles, displays, fastens, fixes, grinds, heats, manipulates, measures, mends, mixes, organizes, sketches. NOTE: The key words are the same as Mechanism, but will have adverbs or adjectives that indicate that the performance is quicker, better, more accurate, etc.

Adaptation: Skills are well developed and the individual can modify movement patterns to fit special requirements.

Examples:  Responds effectively to unexpected experiences.  Modifies instruction to meet the needs of the learners. Perform a task with a machine that it was not originally intended to do (machine is not damaged and there is no danger in performing the new task).

Keywords: adapts, alters, changes, rearranges, reorganizes, revises, varies.

Origination: Creating new movement patterns to fit a particular situation or specific problem.  Learning outcomes emphasize creativity based upon highly developed skills.

Examples:  Constructs a new theory. Develops a new and comprehensive training programming. Creates a new gymnastic routine.

Keywords: arranges, builds, combines, composes, constructs, creates, designs, initiate, makes, originates.

As mentioned earlier, the committee did not produce a compilation for the psychomotor domain model, but others have. The one discussed above is by Simpson (1972). There are two other popular versions:

R.H. Dave's (1970):

  • Imitation: Observing and patterning behavior after someone else. Performance may be of low quality. Example: Copying a work of art.
  • Manipulation: Being able to perform certain actions by following instructions and practicing. Example: Creating work on one's own, after taking lessons, or reading about it.
  • Precision: Refining, becoming more exact. Few errors are apparent. Example: Working and reworking something, so it will be "just right."
  • Articulation: Coordinating a series of actions, achieving harmony and internal consistency. Example: Producing a video that involves music, drama, color, sound, etc.
  • Naturalization: Having high level performance become natural, without needing to think much about it. Examples: Michael Jordan playing basketball, Nancy Lopez hitting a golf ball, etc.
  • Involuntary movement - reaction
  • Fundamental movements - basic movements
  • Perception - response to stimuli
  • Physical abilities - stamina that must be developed for further development
  • Skilled movements - advanced learned movements
  • No discursive communication - effective body language


1. Bengamin S. Bloom, Bertram B. Mesia, and David R. Krathwohl (1964). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (two vols: The Affective Domain & The Cognitive Domain). New York. David McKay.

Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives


This material is largely drawn from a handout from Dr Robert Kleinsasser (CLTR at UQ). He acknowledges that the verb lists come from the Washington State Board of Vocational Education. The verb lists will be very useful when you write your own learning goals (which are a kind of educational objective).

Note: This material is presented as a source of ideas. It is not intended as the only way to write objectives nor even a completely valid one. Bloom's Taxonomy dates from the 1950's and has been under debate and challenge ever since.

Reference: Bloom, B.S. (Ed) (1956 - 1964) Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, David McKay Company Inc, New York.

This reference contains the original two volumes detailing the taxonomies for the cognitive and affective domains (see below).


Bloom's Taxonomy

Three "Domains" - Cognitive (about knowing), Affective (about attitudes, feelings), Psychomotor (about doing)

Some verbs to help in writing objectives in the cognitive domain

knowledge comprehension application analysis synthesis evaluation
Give examples

Make sense of

Break down
Point out
set up
Make up


Compare & Contrast


Affective domain

A hierarchy of five levels (the hierarchy, among other things, is what is most under question at present)



is willing to notice a particular phenomenon


makes response, at first with compliance, later willingly and with satisfaction



accepts worth of a thing


organises values; determines interrelationships; adapts behaviour to value system


generalises certain values into controlling tendencies; emphasis on internal consistency; later integrates these into a total philosophy of life or world view.


Some verbs to help in writing objectives in the affective domain

receiving responding valuing organisation characterisation
be conscious
be sensitive
be alert
continuing desire
assume responsibility
is loyal to
form judgement
is realistic
is consistent


Psychomotor Domain

The psychomotor domain concerns things students might physically do. Although no taxonomy of this domain was compiled by Bloom and his coworkers, several competing taxonomies have been created over the years since Bloom's original books. The one summarised here is based on work by Harrow (Harrow, A. (1972) A Taxonomy of the Psychomotor Domain. A guide for Developing Behavioral Objectives. New York: McKay), as summarised in Barry, K. and King, L. (1993) Beginning Teaching, Wentworth falls, NSW: Social Science Press.

The levels of this domain are categorised as:

Reflex - objectives not usually written at this "low" level;

Fundamental movements - applicable mostly to young children ("crawl, run, jump, reach, change direction")

Perceptual abilities - "catch, write, balance, distinguish, manipulate"

Physical abilities - "stop, increase, move quickly, change, react"

Skilled movements - "play, hit, swim, dive, use"

Non-discursive communication - "express, create, mime, design, interpret"

The last two categories seem likely to be well applicable to programs in the creative and professional areas. Clinical skills such as palpation arguably legitimately qualify as psychomotor skills in the skilled movement category, while painting, drawing and acting, for example, will at least in part fall into the non-discursive communication category.

The psychomotor domain and its relevant verbs and categories have been less well articulated, at all levels of education, than the cognitive and affective domains. However, it is important that you do not ignore objectives in this area should there be relevant skills in your course.

How does Bloom's Taxonomy apply to the integration of technology in learning?

In 1956, Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational psychologists who developed a classification of levels of intellectual behavior important in learning. This became a taxonomy including three overlapping domains; the cognitive, psychomotor, and affective. Each of the domains can be utilized through the interaction of media.

Cognitive learning is demonstrated by knowledge recall and the intellectual skills: comprehending information, organizing ideas, analyzing and synthesizing data, applying knowledge, choosing among alternatives in problem-solving, and evaluating ideas or actions. This domain on the acquisition and use of knowledge is predominant in the majority of courses. Bloom identified six levels within the cognitive domain, from the simple recall or recognition of facts, as the lowest level, through increasingly more complex and abstract mental levels, to the highest order which is classified as evaluation. Verb examples that represent intellectual activity on each level are listed here.

  1. Knowledge: arrange, define, duplicate, label, list, memorize, name, order, recognize, relate, recall, repeat, reproduce state.
  2. Comprehension: classify, describe, discuss, explain, express, identify, indicate, locate, recognize, report, restate, review, select, translate,
  3. Application: apply, choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, operate, practice, schedule, sketch, solve, use, write.
  4. Analysis: analyze, appraise, calculate, categorize, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, question, test.
  5. Synthesis: arrange, assemble, collect, compose, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, manage, organize, plan, prepare, propose, set up, write.
  6. Evaluation: appraise, argue, assess, attach, choose compare, defend estimate, judge, predict, rate, core, select, support, value, evaluate.

Affective learning is demonstrated by behaviors indicating attitudes of awareness, interest, attention, concern, and responsibility, ability to listen and respond in interactions with others, and ability to demonstrate those attitudinal characteristics or values which are appropriate to the test situation and the field of study. This domain relates to emotions, attitudes, appreciations, and values, such as enjoying, conserving, respecting, and supporting. Verbs applicable to the affective domain include accepts, attempts, challenges, defends, disputes, joins, judges, praises, questions, shares, supports, and volunteers.

Psychomotor learning is demonstrated by physical skills; coordination, dexterity, manipulation, grace, strength, speed; actions which demonstrate the fine motor skills such as use of precision instruments or tools, or actions which evidence gross motor skills such as the use of the body in dance or athletic performance. Verbs applicable to the psychomotor domain include bend, grasp, handle, operate, reach, relax, shorten, stretch, write, differentiate (by touch), express (facially), perform (skillfully).

Video Conferencing: Video is used for content that must be presented utilizing visuals such as video tape, slides, charts, graphs, drawings and demonstrations. Since video is a more expensive medium to use because of the cost of wideband transmission, it should be used selectively when the content requires it. All content does not need to be presented over video. After primary information has been presented on video, some interaction may take place if there is time left in the class period and if the instructor has planned for interaction.

Video technology provides numerous advantages; increases instructor productivity; encourages participative teaching styles; and promotes and optimizes the highest ideals in advancing education. Coupled with audio conferencing and computer conferencing technologies, an entirely new group of resources becomes available. Interaction can be carried on through more cost efficient audio and computer technologies which can be available to students in synchronous or asynchronous modes as the content or the instructor requires. Classes should be taped and made available to students.

If class room space is at a premium, video conferences can be switched to the campus closed circuit network so that students can view the class in their dormitory room. They can interact by calling into the origination site on campus or at a distant campus.

Audio Conferencing: To continue the discussion during the next regular class period, the class can meet via audio conference bridge. The equipment required for this is an audio conference bridge with enough ports on it to accommodate the size of the class. During the audio conference the instructor can present new material that does not require video for presentation, answer questions, and set up and interaction between students so that they are able to share information and experiences. Audio conferencing should be used when synchronous (real time) discussion is required. During the early part of the course, audio conferencing can be used more to dispel the student's sense of isolation from instructor and peers. Formal audio conferences should be scheduled well in advance, an agenda should be set by the instructor, and students should have hard copies in their study guide or text of visuals that were used in the video class. To bring a different element into the course, guest experts in the content field can be asked to present lectures or participate in question and answer periods through the audio conference. Additional visual materials can be mailed, faxed to students. Text can be sent via computer. Attendance should be taken during the audio conference and the instructor should require students to interact as part of their grade. Classes should be taped and made available to students.

As with video conferencing, audio conferencing is approached differently than a traditional class; there is a big difference in presentation. Use an agenda with paragraphs explaining discussion points. Handouts are important for visual learners. Throughout the class, use visuals. Involve students early in the audio conference to make them comfortable with the medium. Get participants talking within the first few minutes by asking for names and locations. To create pace, alternate short presentations with discussion, visuals, or a work sheet. Keep segments shorter than ten minutes. Use more visuals late in the program to provide focus and relieve boredom. Combine male and female teams as the change is pleasant to the ear and provides variety. Use people with accents who are immediately identifiable. Plan the presentation order to vary the voices. Plan the wrap-up. The worst thing one can ask in a 20-site audio conference is, "are there any questions?" Instead, ask if there are "Any questions in Dallas?". Everyone in Dallas will look at each other and silently nominate someone to ask a question.

Audio conferencing can be used for group work when a small group of students is assigned a team project. They would meet via the audio conference bridge at scheduled times to complete their work. The project work can be presented by video, audio, and computer conference depending upon the content.

Transmission costs for audio conferencing can be transferred to students as they dial the audio conference bridge. Toll free numbers are provided for instructors.

Voice Mail: Voice mail for faculty and students will extend the bounds of instructor accessibility for students. Voice mail can be provided to students as a component of their dormitory telephone service or as a dial in voice mail box for students living off-campus. With voice mail, complete interactions can take place asynchronously. The student has a question that needs to be answered outside of regular class hours. The instructor can a dial the student's voice mailbox and leave a complete answer when it is convenient. Because this can be done from any phone in the world, instructor's can be accessible to students at all times. This service will reduce the student's sense of isolation.

Touch Tone Interaction: More sophisticated touch tone telephone programs can provide lectures and drill for students. Students access the computer based system by regular telephone. A menu is presented and students select the option they want by touching a number on the telephone pad. The system branches to that content and can present information. A second menu provides a branch to a self-test. The system asks and questions and provides a menu of answer options which correspond to the telephone keypad. Students touch the number that they think is right. The system responds by telling the student if they are right or wrong and if wrong, the system provides the right answer.

Computer Conferencing: Computer conferencing is used to continue the discussion when real time interaction is not required. For some courses, computer conferencing may be sufficient. Because the classroom is open 24 hours a day, seven days a week, students have the flexibility to schedule their learning time around their other personal and professional commitments. Computer conferencing represents a new domain for educational interaction and it is essentially collaborative and team based.

Student and faculty equipment needs include a computer, telecommunications software, conferencing software, modem and a regular telephone line. The host site must have a computer capable of handling and storing thousands of messages, telecommunications software, conferencing software, a bank of modems and telephone lines. Computer conferencing programs enable the student and instructor to dial into the academic computer when it is convenient. Each student is issued a private electronic mailbox on the system and share access to a group mailbox which is the focal point for instructor communication to the class as well as the vehicle for group discussion. Software is menu-driven, and supports simple commands for uploading, downloading, capturing, and storing files.

Students receive course materials by mail. Students follow a study guide prepared for the course by a design team as well as a traditional textbook, case studies and other materials. Instructors can add or delete assignments. Some institutions are creating interactive computer aided components which can be sent to students on computer disk, CD-ROM or accessed through the campus computer network. Each week, instructors provide a lecture focusing on the week's important content which students download. Group and individual assignments are customary. Students send homework assignments to class mailboxes. Instructors grade the homework and can send back a marked assignment or a grade with notes. Students file a weekly summary to focus on what they have learned that is particularly relevant to them.

Interaction by students may account for up to 40 percent of the grade. With the requirement for meaningful interaction, students seldom fail to participate. Once they begin to interact, it becomes a pattern for them. The benefits to the student are significant. The nature of the system enables students to prepare very thoughtful responses, and therefore the quality of information is very high. Decision making can take longer and sometimes students will conference on the telephone to work out logistical issues in completing group projects if time becomes an issue. Their writing and critical thinking ability increases. They cannot hide in the back of the room behind one or two class stars who answer all of the question. If students don't speak up, everyone notices. Quality of content overrides personality or charisma. A text-based system has an equalizing affect. Since students cannot see one another, they're less inclined to typecast them. The only thing that counts is the quality of the student's ideas. Faculty are able to provide significant one-to-one instruction to students when they need it - or within a few hours of when a question is asked. The amount of time available to each student is increased because it is not confined to the traditional class hours. Most schools require that students and faculty log on five days each week. When real time interaction is necessary, students and faculty use the telephone or audio conferencing.

In this mode a number of smaller assignments is due each week. All assignments are posted to mailboxes which are open to the class. Students react to one another's assignments by critiquing the assignment, making additional suggestions, providing other information, or asking for additional information. This process contributes to higher developmental levels of understanding and their collaborative work skills are honed by the requirements of the course. The act of formulating and verbalizing one's own ideas as well as responding to ideas by others are important cognitive skills. Collaboration contributes to higher order learning through cognitive restructuring or conflict resolution. Whereas in the face-to-face classroom environment up to 60-80 percent of the verbal exchange during class time comes from the teacher (Dunkin & Biddle, 1974; McDonald & Elias, 1976), this pattern is the opposite in computer and audio conferencing (Lane, 1990). Analyses of various online courses indicates that the instructor contributes 10-15 percent of the message volume and of the number of conference messages (Harasim, 1987; Winkelmans, 1988). This is not a correspondence course by modem; interaction in this medium is significantly higher than in traditional classes. The availability of an archived transcript of the class facilitates reflective review of previous comments and discussion prior to providing an answer. As a medium, it is particularly conducive to brainstorming, networking, group synergy, and sharing information. It is an information rich environment. Final examinations are usually open book and are sent to the instructor's mail box which cannot be accessed by students.

An example of a group assignment might be a consensus ranking exercise. Students are given seven points to rank individually and required to provide statements about why they ranked items as they did. The group will continue the exercise for several days and are required to come to a class consensus. Active learning in the computer conferencing environment can be measured by the level of participation. The computer medium lends itself well to a variety of courses and is particularly useful in management, writing, education and other theory intense courses. Courses involving the use of spread sheets are also taught over computer. While it can be an aid in decision making, the asynchronous nature of the medium tends to lengthen the time frame before the decision is made.

Transmission costs for computer conferencing can be transferred to students as they dial into the computer. Toll free numbers are usually provided for instructors. Students pay for their own modem connect time which amounts to about 1.5 to 2 hours per week. Since they are not working in real time, their connect time is limited to logging onto the system to capture material to their own computer disk. Once they capture the material, they log off the system and prepare their homework and discussion comments at their leisure to send later.

Instructional Design: An instructional design team experienced in video, audio, and computer conferencing should design or adapt a course for the interaction model. Instructional design should be based on adult education theory and techniques, self-directed learning, learning styles, collaborative learning, team based exercises and interaction projects based upon the content. Some members of the design team may need additional training.

Mix of Media: The use of video, audio and computer conferencing forms the basis for a move toward multimedia. As students and faculty become familiar and comfortable with the existing but separate mix of media, they are preparing for the use of multimedia that will be available over wideband transmission lines. These new hypertextual environments will be interfaced with computer conferencing systems to produce a more advanced communication and education medium. This is a new learning domain which will enable educators and students to engage in learning interactions more effectively, and will develop new and different forms of educational interactions. Because the mix of media and multimedia appeal to a variety of learning styles, students will learn more effectively than they would from any one medium alone.

Faculty Training: Faculty need to be trained in video, audio, and computer conferencing technologies and the methodologies and techniques that will work well in these media. Faculty need to be trained in adult education theory and application so that the student is encouraged to become self-directed and take responsibility for initiating interaction. Faculty should be trained to facilitate students who have become self-directed. Faculty should be given access to the learning style instruments completed by students and trained in learning styles.